Ziemiańskie winnice Podola
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Author describe unexpected evolution of Polish vineyards at South-East region of Poland – Podole – during the 1930–1940. Due to the close neighbourhood of the Black Sea, soft climate and fecund soil, Podole was always a wine region, but a more intensive rise of the wine production began after the crisis of 1929. The important role of rebuilding the vineyards played for example a young landlord Gustaw Głażewski who had learned the enology in France or countess Zofia Łoś. Winemakers were grouped in The Association of Orchards Owners in Zaleszczyki, which was the biggest orchards association in Poland before 1939. The chairman was Cyryl Czarkowski-Golejewski, who owned the largest Polish vineyard Wysuczka majorat (34 ha). Renovation of vineyards in Podole were strictly connected with promotion of region and local wines. Since 1935 in Podole has been organized the wine harvests by the landlords, state and local authorities. Event with local wine and unique folk culture was a tourist attraction in Poland. The wine production by landlords changed the habits and the taste, the local cultivators abandoned a production of fruit wine or hybrids and they started to make a real grape wine from vitis vinifera. Due to efforts of Polish landlords during 1920–1939 a wine production based on the grape became dominate. In the forthies the wine producers projected to plant two thousand hectares more of wine seedlings in Podole. After the Soviet Army invade in the 17th of September 1939 a big part of winemakers and landowners has been murdered by NKWD. The annex includes unique document describing the vineyard of Wysuczka majorat just before World War II.