Inicjatywy łódzkiego Kościoła rzymskokatolickiego w sferze opieki nad dziećmi w latach 1914–1918 na przykładzie Towarzystwa Schronisk św. Stanisława Kostki
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Childcare initiatives of Łódź Roman Catholic Church in 1914–1918 with the example of Towarzystwo Schronisk św. Stanisława Kostki [St. Stanislaus Kostka Association of Shelters] Towarzystwo Schronisk św. Stanisława Kostki in Łódź was established in November 1914. The organization conducted its activities at the St. Stanislaus Kostka parish and church (at present, it is the Metropolitan Church in Łódź, ul. Piotrkowska 265). The originator and the main initiator of the Association was the Reverend Wincenty Tymieniecki, who was the parish priest in that church at that time (bishop in Łódź in 1921–1934). The main purpose of Towarzystwo Schronisk św. Stanisława Kostki was to take care of children in two types of institutions: half-open (day care centres for children at pre-school and school age) and open ones, such as orphanages (for children from several months to 14 years of age). Day care centres were attended by children whose parents worked. Orphanages housed orphans,half-orphans and children who had been abandoned or homeless. The tasks of both types of institutions, in particular during the World War I, also included food provision. Rations were meagre, especially at the beginning of the war; however, in many cases they saved children from starvation. In day care centres, children received lunch once a day and sometimes breakfast; in orphanages, at least 3 meals a day were provided. During the World War I, Towarzystwo św. Stanisława Kostki established and managed 16 care institutions, including 12 centres for children. Those included 3 orphanages for children, a shelter for adults, 8 day care centres, and a school for children with hearing and speech disorders (School for Deaf and Dumb Children). Apart from those institutions, on 5 June 1916, 3-month courses for day care teachers were launched (School for Day Care Teachers), which were held at ul. Czerwona 6. In 1917, the Association established a shoe workshop, which employed 15 people, and a hat workshop, where several boys from an orphanage learned how to sew.
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