Funkcjonowanie sklepów osiedlowych oraz zachowania zakupowe i przestrzenne ich klientów. Przykład Teofilowa w Łodzi
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Przedmiotem tego opracowania jest funkcjonowanie sklepów osiedlowych w przestrzeni wielkomiejskiej na przykładzie Teofilowa w Łodzi. Uwzględniono przy tym zachowania zakupowe i przestrzenne klientów tych sklepów. Cel pracy stanowi określenie warunków i mechanizmów funkcjonowania sklepów osiedlowych w przestrzeni wielkomiejskiej oraz właściwości struktury i zachowań ich klientów.Area occupied by housing estates on Teofilów and their spatial arrangement, as well as distribution and functioning of community shops are characterized by long and rich history which determined them. In case these housing estates, originating in the main measuring cup from years 60. of the 20th century, four-storey blocks predominate. A quite well-developed technical and social infrastructure also pays attention. At present c 39 thousand persons inhabit these housing estates. Community shops on Teofilów are distributed unevenly, similarly to the population of this part of the city. It is possible in addition to distinguish three types of the location of such retail outlets: 1) location on the area of great commercial-service complexes, 2) location in little concentrations of shops of different kind, 3) location of commercial objects in the form isolated. Many diverse factors influence the general and detailed localization of analyzed shops. Community shops on Teofilów, of which specific provisions of law govern functioning, aren't homogeneous. The typical length of the period of conducting activity by them is 12 years. It establishes that they came into existence mainly in the period of the transformation. We observed in addition that founded shops differently were distributed in different periods. On entire Teofilów dominate little community shops belonging to natural persons, more strongly dispersed from remaining shops. In the community shop only three persons most often work. Explored commercial points specialize mainly in the sale of diverse products food, selected appropriately to needs of customers. Shaping the assortment in that kind of shops depends on their size, form of the sale, structure of customers, surrounding and the like Field examinations demonstrated considerable diversifying this assortment, in addition in all shops such products were sold, like eggs and dairy products, cereal articles, the canailles, cakes and cookies, drinks, juices and mineral waters, coffees and teas. Some articles are deposited in closely determined places of individual shops. One should also mark, that community shops, competing with large-surface shops, mainly are opened in working days as far as by 14 hours. However the majority of these shops don’t work on Sundays. Demographic-social structure of polled customers of community shops Teofilów has a number of peculiar properties. One should here exchange numerical superiority of women, co-dominance of persons in an working and post-working age and building households single and consisting of two persons, relative numerical superiority of persons with the secondary school secondary education, co-dominance the keeping oneself from the retirement pension and the paid work, average financial status of the majority of respondents. Purchase behaviours of examined customers diversify depending on the outline of the given shop. However in all community shops such food products are often bought, like the bread (60% of customers), eggs and dairy products (50%), vegetables and fruits, but rarely – cigarettes and alcohol and chemical articles. Too most typical it is possible to regard customers which independently to community shops most often go to the shopping three times during the week, in addition the time of lasting the shopping is included in a period from 11 up to 20 minutes, and disposable expenses associated with them amount to 20–40 PLN. A tendency of concentrating places of residence of customers of considered community shops in the vicinity of big commercial-service complexes pays attention. These shops differ in the number of customers what the strong competition exerts influence in this group of retail outlets on and spatial structure of the population. Amongst respondents dominate (54%) customers committing the shopping in two community shops located closest their places of residence usually. Most important motives for choice of preferred shop turned out to be his convenient location towards a place of residence of the customer and a large range of offered goods. The average time of the approach for the preferred shop achieves only 11 minutes. Taking into consideration the greatest frequency of using by respondents retail outlets of different kind, it is possible to notice that community shops positioned themselves on the second place, while small marketplaces and markets filled the leading position. Conducted examinations also showed that opinions of customers about functioning of community shops were ambiguous. The majority of respondents recognized the number, as well as the localization of these shops too proper towards needs of residents. Community shops in the opinion of customers have both a lot of virtues, and defects in addition. The most customers ranked the closeness of a place of residence and the short time of making purchases among main advantages of these shops. Of shops meanwhile for most important, almost equivalent defects discussed respondents mainly recognized the lack of the promotion and ceiling prices. Out of six compared dimensions of functioning of community shops beneficial evaluations (averages) made by customers qualities concern service, keeping the purity, the appearance of the shop (taking care) and qualities of products. Next, negative assessments of respondents refer up to prices and diversifying the assortment. Presented research findings indicate, that for further functioning of existing community shops above all large-surface shops constitute a considerable risk. Also a competition increases from the side of small shops belonging to new networks, as well as the Internet trade. Therefore the role of community shops in the everyday shopping of food products can significantly reduce. All the same thanks to their established virtues community shops have a raison d’être in the future. Presented research findings indicate, that for existing community shops above all large- surface shops, as well as an Internet trade constitute the strong competition. Negatively an expansion of discount shops only recently affected the development of inspected community shops. At present network small shops more and more often enter areas of analysed housing estates. It is possible to suppose in the nearest years shops of the type convenience will also be a most quickly developing section of the retail community trade. At the moment community shops constituting the property of natural persons were in particularly a difficult situation. Creating purchase largest groups, the far-reaching specialization and forming a union in the web are a chance of surviving them. At the same time increasing the profitability of these retail outlets is necessary.