Testy inteligencji „culture-fair” (powstanie, założenia, rodzaje, ocena)
The Author presents in this article the orgin and history of the culture-fair intelligence tests and theoretical foundations they are based on. The results of the world's studies includingthe Polish ones on the reliability and validity of such test as: R. B. Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test, Scale 1, R. B. Cattell CultureFair Intelligence Test, Scale 2 and 3, J. C. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Standard Progressive Matrices, Florence Goodenough and D. B. Harris: Draw-a-Man Test and some others are presented. The author argues that "culture-fair" tests should rather be called "culture-reduced" since they are not tests that are free of cultural conditionment. There are no such tests. The tests under consideration minimalize to a greater or lesser degree the influence of certain cultural factors. While estimating the value of particular kinds of culture-reduced intelligence tests, attention should be given not only to their reliability and validity, but also cultural variables that have been minimalized and to the degree their influence have been minimalized by an appropriate construction.