Analiza porównawcza wartości danych zdobytych przy pomocy różnych technik
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The paper presents a comparative - analysis of the results obtained by means of “captive” audience questionnaire, an interview with a known and unknown respondent. The author tried to answer two essential questions: 1. which of these three techniques results in sincerer replies concerning life and professional attitudes; 2. what deviations (their character and extent) from reality may be expected in the obtained results when the techniques are used in the process of collecting data concerning attitudes. The comparative analysis was made in connection with the research into the life and professional attitudes of primary school teachers in the Olsztyn voivodeship 945 persons were interviewed. In order to solve the problem in question it was decided to compare the data obtained by means of various techniques and for the comparison a method close to the experiment ex post facto was used. When the results obtained by means of three techniques had been analysed, hypotheses concerning the directions and sources of deviations were made. A comparison of the results obtained during an interview with an acquaintance with the results of observations helped to verify the hypotheses partly. The obtained data revealed that in the majority of questions which differed in distribution of replies according to the technique applied, the greatest difference was found between the results of a questionnaire and the results obtained by means of an interview with an unknown respondent. The distribution of replies to those questions obtained in an interview with an acquaintance were either similar to that obtained in an interview with a stranger of to the .results of a questionnaire, the latter situation being more frequent. Respondents in the interview with a stranger contrary to the respondents in the interview with an acquaintance and to the participants of the auditory questionnaire in particular showed a tendency to give such replies which turned out to their advantage and to avoid such replies which might reflect discredit on them or do them a lot of harm if the secrecy of their replies were disclosed. When the results obtained in an interview with an acquaintance were compared with the observation data both these tendencies were also found but in a smaller extent. In consequence the conclusion was drawn that in connection with the majority of questions which were analysed the most reliable information was provided by the questionnaire whole the least reliable information was found in the interview with a stranger. The results of the interview with an acquaintance were – generally speaking – less reliable when compared with a questionnaire with “captive” audience, but more reliable when compared with the data obtained by means of the interview with a stranger.