Tajemnicza roślina kinara, a zatem o antycznych karczochach i kardach
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The article focuses of the history, dietetic, culinary and medical applications of the plant which was called kínara in Greek. The analyzed data suggest that the above-mentioned edible was a wild-growing thistle classified by ancient scholarship as a vegetable belonging in the class of akanthóde, i.e. thorny plants. Usually it was eaten by rural population, profited from especially in the time of hunger as emergency food (and that is why it was salted to provide supply kept to meet such hardships) but our sources also indicate that it was a gourmet’s choice (which is attested to by recipes in De re coquinaria). It was not highly evaluated by ancient and early Byzantine dietetics (from Galen of Paul of Aegina) and played a marginal role as medication. The plant was domesticated as late as between the IXth and the XIth century by Arab gardeners to evolve into the modern day artichokes and cards.