Start-ups drive technology implementation by playing a significant role in the commercialization process. The article on „ The role of scientist, transfer and biotechnology commercialization – based spin–off/spin–out: case studies from Centrum Badań DNA Sp. z o.o. and Inno–Gene S.A.” shows the successful exploitation of new technology and products in biotechnology sector. In this paper director of Center and Technology Transfer at University of Lodz and owner of the spin–off companies investigate the relation between knowledge and technology transfers and firm development by using the public and privet investments. In addition they explore theory and practice in different academic entrepreneurship interpretation. The case study of two spin–offs indicates that academic entrepreneurs can play a crucial role in productivity of R&D.