The Role of Immigrants in the ‘Take-Offs’ of Eastern European ‘Manchesters.’ A Comparative Case Studies of Three Cities: Lodz, Tampere, and Ivanovo
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In this paper, we try to identify the institutional offers for emigrants and evaluate the role of immigrants at the time of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century history of three cities where the dynamic growth and the ‘take-offs’ depended largely on newcomers. In all cases, the industry was the main factor that led to the ‘take-off’ in terms of the number of inhabitants and also the creation of the bourgeoisie as a socio-economic class. In our paper we reveal key institutional and geographical factors that accelerated the unprecedent waves of immigrants (with different strengths in different cities) to these Eastern European ‘Manchesters’ and made their role central to urban economic development. Their activity was the result of advantageous institutional circumstances connected with changes in the borders, the appearance of governments, and new local management being strictly related to changes in customs policy or extraordinary international situations.