Przeobrażenia współczesnego małżeństwa
Transformations of a marriage concern not only its formal features that result from the subsequent developmental phases of every dyad, but are determined by its dynamics as well. The dynamic aspect of marriage functioning includes its different qualities in different phases or even situations of the partners’ common life. In each phase, five qualities of marriage may be actualised or one of them may become dominant. Every change is a potential source of a conflict, crisis, or menace. In progressive development of a marriage it is assumed that its imperfect qualities last for a short time and apparent or real satisfaction is achieved. Confronting individual needs, fancies, and expectations of partners may lead either to creative development, which results in their mutual adaptation and improving the relationship, or to deepening differences, which lowers its quality. The highest form of mutual understanding and adapting of partners in a marriage is the so called variable model. It consists in permeation of the traditional model and the partner one. Tasks for the partners are determined by a current situation to which they adapt. Depending on the situation, tasks related to housekeeping and caring for children are taken over by one partner (not necessarily a woman) or both partners become equally engaged. A relationship between a model of marriage and its quality is indicated. Respecting the traditional model or the partner one stiffly occurs to become a reason for conflicts and crises in marriage, which are repeated in subsequent phases of the dyad’s life. The variable model is submitted to the dynamics of the dyad’s life and thus it favours success in marriage. The flexibility of partners in these relationships results from their high empathy and optimal communication, the features that have been evidenced in earlier research.