Z badań nad starszym założeniem obronnym w Ostromecku, woj. bydgoskie
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The manor-park complex at Ostromecko, in the province of Bydgoszcz, has been an object of interest for art and architecture historians for a long time. The list of scholars studying it includes among others: F. Schultz, J. Heise, M. Orłowicz, G. Tillmann, M. Rejmanowski, T. Mroczko, and1 B. Sadurska. The most important components of the complex preserved till today are: „the old palace", erected most probably in 18th century, and resembling in its today's stylistic shape the work of Saxonic architect — M. D. Pöppelmann, and „the new palace" built by the Schoenborn-Alveneleben family from 19th century perhaps according to K. Schinkel's design. A considerable portion of the literature of the subject mentions the presence of mediaeval „castrum" or another older brick building melted into the mass of „the old palace". This is among others confirmed by B. Sadurska, who found a short description of the Ostromecko state from 1714 testifying to the effect that in the palace mass there exist relics of the older manor. Ostromecko village appears in written sources already in 1222 and throughout the whole time, we are interested in, it was privately owned. Till the early 17th century it was a seat of the Ostromecki family (of the Pomian coat of arms), and next till the end of 17th century it was owned by the Dorpowski's (of the Junosza coat of arms). In the late 18th century or at the turn oif 16th and 19>th century following a serial changes of owners the estate was purchased by a rich grain merchant from Grudziądz — Jakub Schoenborn to become next in 19th century a seat of the Schoenborn-Alvensleben family. Insignificant relics of the older building indentified in the walls of "the old palace" could not provide sufficient material for reconstruction of the older building. A new attempt at ana ly sis , w as made possible by the inventory of the Ostromecko e state from 1718 discovered in the Chief Register of Old Acts in Warsaw in the complex of relations of Juridicial Books of Wieluń (Caistrensia Vielunensta relationes). It contains, an often quoted in this article, description of a three-story and two-tract brick manor-house erected on a quadrangular earth mound surrounded with a dike and a moat. The de fensiv e manor-house at Ostromecko was built probably in the second half of 16th or in , t h e first half of 17th century at the initiative^ of the Ostrameckis or the Dorpowskis. Despite the modern shape of the building s mass,surrounding it with a moat was connecting it with mediaeval traditions. At that time it was typical for knight seats to be located on earth mounds surrounded with dikes,moats etc. This mediaeval custom was preserved, in the light of the studies conducted by the authotr, at least till mid-17th century. The situation in which the axially and symmetrically designed building of the manox-estate iis surrounded by post-mediaeval retrenchments and not by a palace yard designed in a modern way is, however, typical for Pomerania as well as for the whole Poland in 16th and 17th centuries. Unfortunately, the absence of archeological studies hampers a more detailed analysis of surroundings of 16th— 17th century brick manors. The example of Ostromecko manor, discussed in this article, illustrates the need for performing comprehensive architectonic-archeological studies and not only studies restricted to the analysis of the preserved brick relics. Returning to the problem of Ostromecko w e are analyzing here it is worth mentioning that, in the light of the already completed studies, there are absent sufficient data confirming the thesis about the presence of the mediaeval "castrum". Tho information about an older de fensive object must have concerned the brick manor from 16th/l7th century surrounded with a fortified circle. This conclusion may be verified only by field studies.