Polskie schrony bojowe na linii Warty i Widawki. Zapomniane dziedzictwo
The paper presents the history and results of an inventory of forty-seven military bunkers, which together formed the fortiﬁ ed Warta and Widawka line in 1939. The structures investigated are in the majority one-sided casemates, but there are also two-sided bunkers and one observation bunker. During World War II, they formed the main defensive line for the “Lodz” Army, whereas today they are an excellent example of Polish historical engineering and fortiﬁ cation thought. The main goal of the paper is to document their structure and function, as well as to analyse their conservation status and determine the degree to which they can be used for contemporary functions. Most casemates have been preserved and are in quite a good condition, with two completely destroyed and seven damaged. In the main, the bunkers are littered and suffer from neglect, whereas their worsening technical condition is a consequence of degrading natural factors and inappropriate use (or no use at all) as well as damage inﬂ icted by local populations. Two tourist trails have been marked out based on the fortiﬁ cations of the Warta and Widawka line. But these do not fulﬁ ll their role due to underdeveloped tourist infrastructure and no promotion. Only two bunkers, in Stronsk and Belen are used in historical re-enactments. Despite the fact that several structures have been recognised as heritage sites by local governments, the casemates of the Warta and Widawka line are not legally protected. It may be, that protection through introduction of a cultural park, could prompt proper development, use and better promotion of what is still undiscovered militaris architectural heritage of Central Poland.
- Artykuły naukowe