Analiza modelu wewnętrznej reakcji respondenta na pytanie w wywiadzie kwestionariuszowym
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The described model constituted theoretical basis of investigation whose purpose was to evaluate the answers of respondents through analysis of information about the psychological processes underlying these answers. The model states which processes appear in a respondent when he is answering a question and which course of these processes is appropriate from the view point of the information sought. Psychological processes are divided into two phases. The first phase embraces the process of reception, understanding and acceptance of a question; in the second phase, takes place the process of opinion formation as well as all other phenomena that appear in a respondent when he is forming his own judgement concerning the problem raised by the questionnaire question. Reception of a question consists in respondent’s hearing it and becoming aware of it; understanding a question requires both understanding the meaning of possible answers and understanding the task imposed by that question. Both the reception and understanding of a question may be appropriate or inappropriate. Acceptance of a question concerns its empirical and pragmatic assumptions, i.e. is connected with a respondent’s conviction that he is in a position to answer it. An answer may be formed as a result of: 1. processes which are appropriate and assumed by the researcher (such as recalling of facts and opinions, comparing them, making generalizations, etc.) or 2. inappropriate processes which lead to thoughtless, vicarious haphazard or biased answers. Answer formation may be also distorted by the respondent’s undesirable, incidental thoughts and feelings; the ensuing negative effects may be removed by corrective processes which make respondent answer according to the demand contained in the question. An alternative approach to the analysis of processes occurring in respondents is presented as follows: in the first phase (that of decoding and reception of a question) takes place the process of understanding the question assumptions as well as the process of attitude formation with regard to the question; in the second phase, three levels of analysis are distinguished: 1° answer formation, 2° control of answer formation, 3° causes of distortions (the latter level is common for both phases). The model presented describes reactions to „whether questions”, by means of which information was sought in the field research conducted in Włocławek in 1973, and relating to respondents’ opinions. The research has shown the usefulness of that model for the procedures verifying the answers obtained in interviews.