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dc.contributor.authorNiewiński, Andrzej
dc.contributor.editorJarno, Witold
dc.contributor.editorKita, Jarosław
dc.identifier.citationNiewiński A., Pogodowe uwarunkowania działań wojennych. Wpływ warunków atmosferycznych na przebieg starć i kampanii militarnych w okresie średniowiecza. Wybrane przykłady, [w:] Oblicza Wojny, tom 1 Armia kontra natura, Jarno W., Kita J. (red.), Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź 2020, s. 27-42, DOI: 10.18778/8220-055-3.03pl_PL
dc.description.abstractThe article examines the impact of adverse weather conditions and astronomical occurrences on the outcome of the selected medieval military campaigns and pitch battles. Unpredictability of weather was an important factor in medieval warfare: unexpected wind, rain, snow, heat or day-to-night temperature fluctuations could influence a military operation in a significant way. As medieval chronicles recorded, troops often suffered from famine as a result of excessive rains, droughts or adverse winds which prevented supplies from being delivered by sea. Apart from causing fatigue and exhaustion bad weather contributed to disease outbreaks and equipment damage. People were weakened physically and psychologically which reduced their fighting ability.pl_PL
dc.publisherWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiegopl_PL
dc.relation.ispartofJarno W., Kita J. (red.), Oblicza Wojny, tom 1 Armia kontra natura, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź 2020;
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Międzynarodowe*
dc.subjectMiddle Agespl_PL
dc.subjectthe warpl_PL
dc.subjectweather and warpl_PL
dc.subjecthistory of warfarepl_PL
dc.titlePogodowe uwarunkowania działań wojennych. Wpływ warunków atmosferycznych na przebieg starć i kampanii militarnych w okresie średniowiecza. Wybrane przykładypl_PL
dc.title.alternativeWeather conditions of military operations. The influence of atmospheric conditions on the course of pitch battles and military campaigns in the middle ages. Selected examplespl_PL
dc.typeBook chapterpl_PL
dc.rights.holder© Copyright by the Authors, Łódź 2020 © Copyright for this edition Uniwersytet Łódzki, Łódź 2020pl_PL
dc.contributor.authorAffiliationKatolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych, Instytut Historii, Katedra Historii Starożytnej, Bizantyńskiej i Średniowiecznejpl_PL

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Międzynarodowe
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Międzynarodowe