Synthesis and (spectro)electrochemistry of mixedvalent diferrocenyl–dihydrothiopyran derivatives
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Three novel diferrocenyl complexes were prepared and characterised. 2,2-Diferrocenyl-4,5-dimethyl- 3,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran (1, sulphide) was accessible by the hetero-Diels–Alder reaction of diferrocenyl thioketone with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Stepwise oxidation of 1 gave the respective oxides 2,2- diferrocenyl-4,5-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran-1-oxide (2, sulfoxide) and 2,2-diferrocenyl-4,5- dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran-1,1-dioxide (3, sulfone), respectively. The molecular structures of 1 and 3 in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The oxidation of sulphide 1 to sulfone 3, plays only a minor role on the overall structure of the two compounds. Electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry (= CV), square wave voltammetry (= SWV)) and spectroelectrochemical (in situ UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy) studies were carried out. The CV and SWV measurements showed that an increase of the sulphur atom oxidation from −2 in 1 to +2 in 3 causes an anodic shift of the ferrocenylbased oxidation potentials of about 100 mV. The electrochemical oxidation of 1–3 generates mixedvalent cations 1+–3+. These monooxidised species display low-energy electronic absorption bands between 1000 and 3000 nm assigned to IVCT (= Inter-Valence Charge Transfer) electronic transitions. Accordingly, the mixed-valent cations 1+–3+ are classified as weakly coupled class II systems according to Robin and Day.
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