Problemy rozwoju zasobów pracy i zatrudnienia w Wielkiej Brytanii w latach 1971-1985
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The article deals with problems of demographic growth and employment of labour resources in the highly-developed capitalist countries. These problems are closely linked with level of unemployment, which constitutes one of the most difficult contemporary socio-economic problem of capitalism. The analysis is focussed on phenomena and processes orienting development and utilization of labour resources (population growth, changes in size and structure of population in working age, professional activity rates, changes in labour resources, state, dynamics and structure of employment) examined here on the example of Great Britain. The analysis has been based on statistical data of the OECD Department of Economics and Statistics, the British Central Statistical Office, the Employment Gazette, and the International Labour Office. It encompasses the years 1971-1985, 1986, although in quite a few cases, especially when investigating problems of demographic development, the analysis reaches back into the sixties or into the future - 1990. The performed analysis of labour resources has revealed that their development proceeds invariably at a slew and quite stable rate, with stabilized shares of professionally active men. There can be observed continuation of long-term trend of growth in professional activity of women, and especially those married. The rate and structural characteristic of labour resources development in Greet Britain create favourable conditions for their utilization and do not contribute to unemployment growth in this country. The analysis of labour employment processes allows to state that absorption of labour does not undergo any major changes from the qualitative point of view despite changing economic conditions. It is certainly too small in relation to existing labour resources. There can be observed the widening of enployment gap, i.e . separating lines of trends in labour and employment grwoth. Structural changes in employment taking place in Great Britain (shifts of labour from industry to services and resulting changes in the structure of qualifications and occupations) correspond to general trends in structural transformations in the highly-developed capitalist countries. They lead to growing unemployment as they activate sectors with a smaller absorptiveness of labour.