Zalesienie Kresów Wschodnich dawnej Rzeczypospolitej w okresie zaborów
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During annexation, ten provinces in the eastern region of the Republic of Poland became part of the Russian Empire. These provinces were kurlandzka, kowieńska, wileńska, grodzieńska, witebska, mińska, mohylewska, wołyńska, podolska and kijowska. In the middle of the 19th century, forests accounted for 33% of the area of the eastern part of the Republic of Poland. At the same time, however, forests covered 30.4% of the Kingdom of Poland. Twenty years later (1870), the area of forest in the eastern region of Republic of Poland fell to 26.4%, and in the Kingdom of Poland, to 27.3%. In the same period, forests covered 41.6% of the European part of Russia, more than 20% of Germany, and less than 4% of England. Before the outbreak of World War I, the area of forest in the eastern area of the Republic of Poland was larger (23.2%) than that in the Kingdom of Poland (18.6%). The most important reason for this could be the dynamic development of industry that occurred in the Kingdom of Poland. In the 19th century the Kingdom of Poland included four, large, industrial districts: staropolski, warszawski, łódzki i sosnowiecko-częstochowski. Whilst the decreasing forest area reduced the natural resource base of Polish lands, it actually resulted in greater economic development, in particular in the industrial sector. However, the reduction resulted in more frequent flooding of rivers and increased soil erosion.