Proces akumulacji pierwotnej na ziemiach polskich
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Internal sources of accumulation played a decisive role on the Polish territories. The main part of resources was extracted from agriculture. The process of primitive accumulation in agriculture was affected by several essential elements. Exploitation and mass proletariatization of peasants constituted a basis here. At the cost of peasants, there were accumulated substantial financial resources (taxes, trade monopoly and especially liquor-production monopoly, and other charges), while the acreage of land belonging to big landed estate s was expanded by means of outsting and enfranchisement of peasants (material element of accumulation). Moreover, peasants deprived of their land were gradually creating a market of free labour (personal element). The capital of landed proprietors played also a significant role in the process of primitive accumulation, especially in Upper Silesia and in the Kingdom of Poland. On the other hand, the commercial, capital exerted a smaller influence on formation of the capitalist system on the Polish te rrito rie s than in Western Europe. It was connected with weakness of the towns in Poland and retardation in the economic development. In towns, th e costs of accumulation were incurred by small producers and the commonalty carrying a heavy burden of indirect taxes. The working class had also its origins in the town population (personal element of primitive accumulation).