Dziedzictwo kulturowe przemysłu elektromaszynowego w Łodzi. Charakterystyka przestrzenna z wykorzystaniem narzędzi GIS
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W artykule autor przedstawił przestrzenne rozmieszczenie terenów stanowiących dziedzictwo kulturowe przemysłu elektromaszynowego w Łodzi. Zanalizował ich dystrybucję, gęstość, koncentrację, strukturę wielkościową i własnościową. Przy okazji zweryfikował i dokonał oceny przydatności narzędzi GIS w tej dziedzinie.Very few people know, how important machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry was for functioning of Łódź in the past. Although there were not so many factories, not so many employed workers in this branches of industry as in textile one, it played vital role in everyday life of citizens and development of the city. Unfortunately, literature about this subject matter is very poor. This article, based on part of the author’s Master’s thesis, written under the supervision of Ph. D. A. Rochmińska entitled “The cultural heritage areas development of machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry in inner district of Łódź”, tries to improve the knowledge about this research problem and introduce its spatial characteristics. Author browsed number of archival materials, addresses books and former publications in order to find the most important industrial areas of those branches. He used GIS programs to verify spatial relations between objects surveyed by the way. As the result he valuated the utility of some GIS tools in this research case. Finally 155 industrial areas of cultural heritage of machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry were found and 144 of them, which were situated inside the administration boundary of Łódź in the year 1939 were inventoried and described precisely. The result of survey indicated indisputably dependence between spatial development of Łódź and number, localization of industrial areas related to machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry. Standard Deviation Ellipse analysis pointed out they were located almost proportionally both sides of the Piotrkowska Street. Though there were a little bit more research areas in West side of the Piotrkowska Street and they were less dispersed than those from its East side. Buffer map showed, that they were of very good or good communication accessibility. It was notably essential from the cultural heritage point of view, to find cadastral districts with the high percentage of machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry areas. That type of development was clearly seen in cadastral districts: W-27 and S-8. The former was situated in the Widzew District where Widzewska Fabryka Maszyn (Wifama) and Zakłady Hydrauliki Siłowej were located. The latter was concentrated in the downtown and that one, according to the author, deserved the special attention to. It was because the industrial buildings were very congested there, well conserved, dated between the end of nineteenth and the beginning of twentieth century with great history memories (e.g. Zakłady Mechaniczne J. John was one of ten the largest metal industry factories in Polish Kingdom in ninetennth century). The vicinity of many other significant areas of machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry (e.g. Fabryka Berschingera, Fonica, Zakłady Braci Eckstein) was also very important for that author’s statement. The areas surveyed usually were not large. Circa 76% of them were less then 0,5 hectare. In most of cases they were concentrated south of the Mickiewicza Street and Piłsudskiego Street. Relationship between their area and distance to the geometrical center of Łódź was positive but very weak. In the year 2009 17% of their parcels belonged to the State Treasury, 38% of them were of private property. Those 17% stated 64% of all areas related to machine, automotive and semi-conductor industry in the past in Łódź. Use of GIS tools accessible in ArcGIS 9.3, let the author make spatial analysis much faster and more precise. Thanks to them creating thematic maps like cartograms and cartodiagrams were much simpler. They also automated process of making buffer maps or applying centrographic measures. The digital data, thematic layers with attribute data and with correct coordinate system, which were gathered for this article use, may be easily applied in future surveys on cultural heritage of Łódź industry.